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subject 새마을운동의 재조명 24 : 쟈이툰 새마을운동

쟈이툰이란 평화를 상징하는 올리브를 뜻하는 쿠르드어다. 쟈이툰부대가 주둔하는 곳은 이라크북부인 아르빌주다. 아르빌주의 인구는 129만명인데 95%가 쿠르드계이다. 쿠르드족은 성경의 메데(MEDES)인의 후손으로 최소한 기원전 6세기 이전부터 지금의 터키, 이라크, 이란이 만나는 지역의 산악지대에서 유목생활을 해오던 민족이다.

쿠르드인은 약2,860만명으로 추산되며 지구상에서 단 한 번도 나라를 가져보지 못한 최대의 소수민족이다. 이라크 내의 쿠르드인은 총510만명으로 전체인구 32,450만명의 21%를 차지하고 있다. 쿠르디스탄은 쿠르드족이 거주하는 6개 자치구역을 말하며 그중 아르빌은 쿠르드자치정부(KRG)의 수도이다. 6.25참전 16개국의 하나인 터키군이 주로 쿠르드인으로 구성되었다는 얘기가 있어 이번 쟈이툰부대의 아르빌주둔은 하늘이 내린 멋진 보은의 기회이기도하다.

쟈이툰부대의 새마을운동추진은 해외새마을운동의 보급에 관한 귀중한 사례이자 경험이므로 그 의의와 성과 및 향후 발전방안을 살펴보는 것은 매우 의미 있는 일이라 생각한다.

‘쟈이툰 새마을운동’의 첫 번째 의의는 단순한 재건지원사업이 아니라, 새마을운동방식의 성공경험에 기초하여 ‘고기 잡는 법’ 전수에 주안점을 둔 전략적 접근방법에 있다. 이를 통해 재건복구와 주민친화의 파병목표를 동시에 달성했다는 점이 중요하다. 이제 우리나라는 경제규모 상 세계11위로서 ODA(공적개발원조)공여 국으로서의 임무를 수행해야할 입장에 있다. 새마을운동방식을 활용한다는 것은 단순한 물적 공여가 아니라 사회발전과 빈곤극복의 노하우인 소프트를 함께 제공한다는 의미가 있다.

둘째 쟈이툰부대원들의 대규모 현지 활동은 새마을운동사에 유례가 없는 일이며 새마을운동의 본격적인 수출이자 실질적인 실험기회라는 점에서 연구과제적 의의가 있다. 새마을운동중앙회 입장에서는 현재 9개의 해외현장을 갖고 있지만 현지인들의 지도인력 부재의 한계를 안고 있다. 이 귀중한 사례를 잘 분석하여 해외 새마을보급에 활용할 필요가 있을 것이다.

‘쟈이툰 새마을운동’의 긍정적인 성과를 살펴보면 다음과 같다. 1)비교적 새마을운동의 추진원리를 원칙적으로 적용했다는 점이다. 시범마을의 선정, 지도자의 선발과 교육, 숙원사업의 추진, 가시적 효과가 나타나는 생활개선사업의 우선추진, 주민참여의 강조, 현금이 아닌 현물과 자재의 지원, 평가에 의한 차등지원 등이다.

2)지휘관들의 의지와 장병들의 헌신적 노력이 돋보였다. 경계근무를 서가면서 봉사활동을 펼쳐 단기간에 사업목표를 완수한다는 것은 군부대가 아니면 불가능했을 것이다. 특히 특전사요원들의 인내심과 도전정신, 목표달성에 대한 집념의 결과로 보인다. 거꾸로 젊은 부대원들에게는 오늘날 한국을 일으킨 원동력이었던 새마을정신을 체감할 수 있는 기회가 되었을 수도 있을 것이다.

3)한국인에 대한 신뢰와 진정어린 감사표시를 통해서 국위가 크게 신장되었음을 본다. 마을에 따라서는 지도층이 매우 의욕적이며 일부 주민들도 자조적 노력의 중요성을 깨닫는 의식개혁의 효과가 서서히 나타나고 있는 듯하다.

이제 쟈이툰 새마을운동은 점화단계에서 내실의 단계로 옮겨져 갈 때가 되었다. 이에 따른 몇 가지 착안사항을 정리해 본다. ①기초행정의 역할이 좀 더 증대 되어야 할 것이다. 마을 담당공무원이 지정되고 책임이 부가될 수 있어야 한다. 마을발전계획 수립과 사업기획은 그들의 몫이다. ②마을표지판을 세우고 정기 새마을대청소를 실시하여 붐을 조성하고 주민들의 주인정신을 좀 더 북돋우어야 하겠다. ③새마을지도자들과 담당공무원에게 다양한 인센티브제를 실시한다.(생필품 배부권, 공동기구 임대권, 기동장비제공 등) ④학생애향대를 조직하고 모스크조직 활용방안을 강구한다. ⑤주민들에게 직접적인 이익과 혜택이 제공되는 소규모자조사업을 위해 희망농가를 대상으로 자재를 지원한다.(부엌개량, 화장실 개수, 샤워기부착, 물탱크설치 등) ⑥마을공동기금조성사업(오리· 양 사육, 양탄자제조 등)을 위해 시드머니(종자돈)를 제공한다. 이처럼 주민들의 자발적 참여를 유도할 수 있는 전략적 프로그램(담장밖 사업에서 담장안 사업으로)을 더욱 개발하고 사업별, 마을별 발전 지표를 설정하여 평가를 통해 마을등급을 부여하며 후속지원은 차등화 함으로써 주민들의 의식을 지속적으로 개혁해나간다.

쟈이툰 영내에는 쟈이툰병원, 기술교육센타, 새마을연수원이라는 세 가지 상징적 민사작전용 시설이 있다. 또한 마을이나 학교에 문맹자교실(쿠르드어), 태권도교실 등이 있어 인기리에 운영되고 있다. 이러한 짜임새 있는 프로그램과 함께, 주민들이 참여하지 않으면 장비지원사업도 멈추면서 새마을방식을 고집하는 쟈이툰 부대원들의 새마을운동가적 집념과 솔선수범이 모범적인 해외 새마을현장을 건설하고 있어 박수를 보낸다.

정갑진 <새마을운동중앙연수원 부원장>

25호 (2006.6.26)

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