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subject 새마을운동 이전의 지역사회개발 운동(1)

새마을운동은 두레와 품앗이 같은 전통 때문에 가능했다

한국농촌에는 고대로부터 오늘날의 지역사회 개발사업과 유사한 주민공동체 활동이 있어 왔다. 이러한 것들은 생산 활동을 위한 협업과 일상생활 속에서 필요한 상부상조와 미풍양속을 보전하려는 교육적 기능도 갖고 있었다.
소규모의 부락 단위 주민협동체로 두레와 품앗이, 계, 향약이 있다. 이것은 지금까지도 지역에 따라 그 일부가 잔존하고 있는 전통적인 협동조직이다.
따라서 우리나라 농촌에는 옛날부터 협동노동이 발달하였다. 부락민의 공동사업을 해결하기 위한 노동형태로서 부역이 발달하여 왔고, 노동력의 교환형태로는 두레와 품앗이가 있다.
공동노동으로서 대표적인 형태가 부역이다. 부역은 부락민의 공동관심사인 도로공사, 가옥개축, 수리역사 및 초상을 치를 때 나타난다. 일본인들은 이것을 악용하여 도로나 철도공사에 많이 사역시켰다. 이것은 최근까지도 그 유제가 남아서 농민들은 도로공사에 무상으로 노동력을 제공하여 왔다.

두레는 노동력의 공적교환 형태이고 품앗이는 사적교환 형태이다. 두레는 주로 영농을 위한 노동력의 협동이고 품앗이는 노동력의 교환뿐만 아니라 길흉사시에 상부상조의 협업 기능을 행한다.

한국의 전통사회에서 한국인이 복지혜택을 가장 많이 받고 또 효과를 누렸던 복지사업 내지 협동사업은 주로 촌락단위의 자조적ㆍ협동 관행이 이었던 것이다. 이것은 농경공동체로서 자연 발생한 민속적인 관행과 유교 문화의 교화로 이루어진 문화적 관행으로 대별해 볼 수 있으며 이는 서로 영향을 미치는 상보관계이기도 하다.

이처럼 민간차원의 협동조직체의 역사는 유구하며 그 의의나 기능에서도 우리의 농촌과 농민들을 지탱시켜온 민간 사회안전망이었다고 평가할 수 있다. 새마을운동 정책은 이러한 주민공동체의 정신과 관행, 즉 주민자치와 협업정신을 이어받고 축적된 경험과 기술은 새마을사업을 추진하면서 전략적으로 십분 활용했다고 할 수 있다.

두레는 부락단위로 공동작업과 상호부조를 위한 지역의 협동조직체를 말한다. 두레란 촌락단위에 조직된 농민들의 상호협동체를 말한다. 두레라는 용어는 두레삼이라는 공동 적마작업에서 유래된 것으로 보이며,「둘레」즉 원주(圓周)의 뜻이다. 오늘날에도 모임에 “둘레둘레 앉는다”는 말이 쓰이고 있음을 볼 때, 이것은 “모임”의 양식구조, 즉 친화의 결합구조를 상징한 말로 이해된다.

두레는 촌락공동체 내부질서 즉 공동방위, 공동노동, 공동예배, 공동유흥, 상호규찰, 상호부조의 협동조직체로서 우리 민족의 촌락 자치질서를 이끌어온 모체가 되었다. 공동작업에 의하여 수입된 자산은 출역량에 따라 배분하되 공동으로 적립한 자산은 지역사회의 공동자산으로 관리, 증식하여 지역사회 공공사업을 펴 나가는데 사용되었다.

두레의 조직은 사라졌지만 그 숙명적 공동주의정신은 무의식화 된 심적 구조로 남아 아직도 농촌사회의 자치와 협동의 제 영역에 걸쳐 잠재적 역할을 미치고 있고 그 노동형식은 전래의 부역 노동형식과 함께 지금도 농촌개발을 위한 제 사업에 영향을 끼치고 있는 것으로 짐작 된다

품앗이의 ‘품’은 노동력을, ‘앗이’는 공용한다는 뜻이다. 품앗이는 부락 내 농민들이 노동력을 서로 차용 또는 교환하는 농촌의 대표적인 노동협력양식 이다. 품앗이는 소농구조하의 농민사회가 자조적인 복지향상을 기하려는 협동체제라 볼 수 있으며 노동협력 이상의 정신적 교환의 의미도 내포한다.

두레의 공동작업이나 공동노동이 공동 사회적 성격을 지니고 있는 반면에 품앗이의 그것은 이익 사회적 성격을 띠고 있다고 할 수 있다.

계는 순수 농민집단으로 그들의 공통욕구와 이익을 추구하기 위해 결성되었다. 오늘날까지도 동류 집단 간에 성행하고 있는데, 권농계, 상조계, 선조제사계, 장학계 등 그 목적과 성격도 매우 다양한 주민 공동체 활동이다.

계는 한국사회의 특유의 조합적 성질을 지닌 협동조직으로 전통적 생활구조의 사회ㆍ경제적 측면을 집약적으로 반영한 조직인 동시에 우리 사회의 전통적인 모든 자생조직의 실체적 구조였다는 점에서 특별한 의의를 지닌다.  

향약의 ‘향’은 지역사회를, ‘약’은 발전 지향적 수칙을 일컫는다. 향약이란 지역사회 발전과 지역주민들의 순화, 덕화, 교화를 목적으로 지식인들 간의 자치적인 협동조직이라고 할 수 있다.

향약은 근세조선 때 면단위 지역 사회에서 펼쳐진 일종의 사회교육 운동이다. 백성들을 교화하여 살기 좋은 미풍양속을 이룩한다는 이념아래 4가지 실천 덕목이 있다. 즉 덕업상권, 과실상규, 예속상교, 환난상휼로서 회원 상호간에 서로 좋은 일을 권하고 나쁜 일은 경계하며 예의를 숭상하고 어려운 일에는 서로 돕자는 것이다.

향약의 기능은 도덕적 기능과 경제적 기능으로 나눌 수 있는데, 도덕적 정신적인 협동과 봉사의 생활을 목적으로 삼은 것이 우선이다. 경제적 기능은 사창과 향약계가 있어 재난에 대비한 곡물을 비축 활용하는 제도와 향교의 유지관리를 위한 공동재산의 운영제도를 말한다.


정갑진
새마을중앙연수원 객원교수

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