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    홈 / 시사 / 칼럼

subject [낙동강] 기요틴

단두대는 프랑스 혁명기, 권력자들의 목을 효율적으로 쳐내기 위해 고안되었다. 힘있는 자들에게 공포를 심어주었던 단두대는 악명과 함께 역사 속으로 사라졌지만 요즘 힘있는 자들을 보면 그런 흉물도 쓸 데가 있는 것은 아닌가 싶다.

   1789년 7월 14일은 전제주의와 봉건제도를 상징하는 바스티유감옥이 파괴된 역사적인 날로 <프랑스혁명 기념일>이 되었다. 원래는 군사 요새였던 바스티유가 17세기경에 <국립형무소>라 불리면서 왕의 칙명을 어긴 지식인들을 잡아들여 세뇌시키는 곳이 되었다. 수감대상은 일반법을 위반한 죄수가 아니라 시국을 다루는 작가나 신문, 잡지에 칼럼을 쓰는 사상가들이 대부분이었다. 필자도 그 때 그 시절 그 땅에 있었다면 한번쯤 바스티유에 끌려가 뼈가 부러지는 고문을 받았을 수도 있었겠다 생각하니 쓴웃음이 나온다. 악랄한 루이 14세가 통치하던 시절에 수감자가 가장 많았다고 한다. 죄수들의 숫자나 명단은 일체 공개되지 않았고, 고문으로 죽은 자는 비밀리에 매장되어 흔적도 없이 사라졌다.

  악랄한 독재국가의 감옥에서 핍박 받고 고문당한 사람들이 혁명의회의 지도자로 선출되자 왕과의 투쟁은 적이 죽지 않으면 내가 죽어야 하는 무시무시한 서바이블 게임(survival game)이 되어 버린다.
   로베스 피에르의 독재가 횡행한 공포정치 10개월 동안 2,600여 명이 참수되었다. 20명의 목을 자르는데 38분이 걸렸다고 한다. 혁명기간에 참수된 자의 수는 40,000명이 넘었다. 그 때 적의 목을 자른 형틀이 기요틴(Guillotine)이다.

항간에서는 이 단두대는 기요탱(Joseph Guillotin)박사가 만들었고 고안자인 기요탱 박사도 자기가 만든 형틀에 목이 잘렸다고 알고 있지만 사실과는 다르다. 1789년 당시 프랑스 파리 대학 의학부의 해부학 교수였던 기요탱 박사는 혁명 실세들의 강요와 동료교수들의 추천으로 본의 아니게 국민의회 의원으로 선출되었다. 그런 어느 날 공개 처형되는 처참한 형장을 참관하게 되었다.

   옛날 로마병사들이 전차에 달고 다니면서 상대방을 도살하는데 사용했던 큰 낫(scythe)으로 망나니가 죄수들의 목을 따고 있었다. 수십 번 찍어야만 숨이 끊어졌기 때문에 소름끼치는 장면이 수없이 연출되었고, 그때마다 단말마의 저주가 쏟아졌다. 그 후 기요탱 박사가 <인도적인 사형집행>을 연구하던 중 <핼리팩스 식 도끼>에 대한 문헌을 발견하였고 이를 근거로 법안을 만들어 국민의회에 제출하여, 1789년 10월 10일 통과된다.

   이 단두대의 공식이름은 기계 설계자인 앙뚜완 루이(Antoine Louis)의 이름을 기려 <루이젯트(Louisette)> 혹은 <루이종(Louison)>이라고 불리었다. 이 최초의 이름을 버리고 기요틴으로 불리게 된 이유는 기요탱 의원을 싫어하는 신문기자가 단두대의 성능을 품평하면서 기요띤느(Guillotine)라고 비꼰 데서 유래하였다. 이 한마디 때문에 그 동안 루이젯트, 루이종, 국가의 면도날, 과부제조기 등등으로 불리던 단두대의 명칭은 <기요틴>으로 통일되었다.

  로베스 피에르의 공포정치가 시작되면서 인간의 목을 개, 돼지 목 따듯이 마구 자르면서 <프랑스의 사형집행기구 = 기요틴>은 세계가 인정하는 특허품이 되었다. 그야말로 기요틴이 프랑스혁명의 주인공이 된 것이다. 이런 시대적 후광을 업고 기요틴은 또 한번 크게 요동치면서 개량품이 보급되었다. 사형 대기자의 숫자가 너무 많고, 기요틴은 한 번에 한 명밖에 죽이지 못하기 때문에 시간 절약을 위하여 우수한 성능의 기요틴을 개발하지 않을 수 없었다. 놀랍게도 칼날이 4개 달린 기요틴, 말하자면 한꺼번에 4사람의 목이 댕강 떨어지는 개량 제품이 등장하였던 것이다. 아마 저승사자도 이 특허품을 보았더라면 다리야, 날 살려라면서 줄행랑을 쳤을 것이다.

  요즘 서민들의 피를 빨아먹는 <바다이야기>와 같은 게임을 유포시켜 떼돈을 먹은 놈들과 그런 게임을 확산시키는데 큰 역할을 했던 힘센 놈들의 목을 댕강 자르자면 신형 기요틴이 도입되어야 할 것 같아 입맛이 쓰다.      

안명수
27호 (2006.8.31)

wlp 15-11-05 
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“Yes.”


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